Database management is the system for managing information that supports the company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and applications and modifying it as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming damaged by unexpected failure. It is an element of a company’s informational infrastructure that supports decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.
A database is a set of tables that organizes data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, known as attributes, that provide information about the data entities. The most widely used kind of database is a relational model developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data because it doesn’t require changing certain sections of the database.
Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of different external views that are based on different models of data and may also include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.